Well, open your map, and read the words below. [17], The Daewongun, who remained opposed to any concessions to Japan or the West, helped organize the Mutiny of 1882, an anti-Japanese outbreak against Queen Min and her allies. Many Koreans in Japan chose to retain their Japanese names, either to avoid discrimination, or later, to meet the requirements for naturalization as Japanese citizens. [110], According to scholar Donald S. Macdonald, "for centuries most Koreans lived as subsistence farmers of rice and other grains and satisfied most of their basic needs through their own labor or through barter. At the end of the 16th century, the Bunroku-Keicho War broke off the relationship between Korea and Japan. They announced the "Japanese empire pressured the outcry of the Korean Empire and people and forced by Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 and full text of a treaty was false and text of the agreement was also false". [162][163] These women faced an average of 29 men and up to 40 men per day, according to one surviving comfort woman. The Daewongun was briefly restored to power, only to be forcibly taken to China by Chinese troops dispatched to Seoul to prevent further disorder. Throughout the occupation, protest movements pushed for Korean independence. As of 1926, he described on his book "The New Korea", "looking forward from 1910, one thing was clear where many things were obscure, namely that Japan, having decided to make Korea part of her Empire, would deem the permanence of her occupation to be a major element of her national policy, to be held intact, at whatever cost, against internal revolt or foreign intrigue. [133], The Japanese administrative policy shifted more aggressively towards cultural assimilation in 1938 (Naisen ittai) with a new government report advising reform to strengthen the war effort. After the wars, Korean missions were dispatched 11 times to the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan between 1607 and 1811. What country invaded Korea in around 1231AD? By the time of the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Korea was the second-most industrialized nation in Asia after Japan itself. Because of these developments, Japanese landownership soared, as did the amount of land taken over by private Japanese companies. Some refused to speak Japanese or change their names; others came up with names that reflected their family history or contained subtle resistance to the policy. [164] However, of the 500,000, less than 50 are alive today[update]. Those who were brought to Japan were often forced to work under appalling and dangerous conditions. [95], Upon Emperor Gojong's death, anti-Japanese rallies took place nationwide, most notably the March 1st Movement of 1919. Public places adopted Japanese, too, and an edict to make films in Japanese soon followed. Relevance. The treaty stipulated: Both the protectorate and the annexation treaties were declared already void in the 1965 Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea . Japanese officials then published Korea's first newspaper, Chōsen shinpō (朝鮮新報), in 1881. B. For later developments, see North Korea: History; and South Korea: History. They claimed that Korea should negotiate with Western powers, particularly Russia, to counterbalance the growing influence of Japan. At the same time, Japan suppressed the Donghak revolution with Korean government forces. [170], Koreans, along with many other Asians, were experimented on in Unit 731, a secret military medical experimentation unit in World War II. thirty five million dollars) and built a welfare center for those suffering from the effects of the atomic bomb. Brudnoy, David. [155][156][157] This name change policy, called sōshi-kaimei (창씨개명; 創氏改名), was part of Japan's assimilation efforts. As historian Heejung Kangnotes, the imperial government also attempted to preserve treasures of Korean art history and culture—but then used them to uphold imperial Japan’s image of itself as a civilizing and modern force. [135], The Japanese rule of Korea also resulted in the relocation of tens of thousands of cultural artifacts to Japan. Many times I can say, and I don't remember how many times. Elementary schools in South Korea today are known by the name chodeung hakgyo (초등학교; 初等學校) ("elementary school") as the term gungmin hakgyo/kokumin gakkō has recently become a politically incorrect term. "[72] In his memoirs, Colonel Eugene C. Jacobs wrote that during the Bataan Death March, "the Korean guards were the most abusive. Starting in 1944, Japan started the conscription of Koreans into the armed forces. I really hate Japan, they invaded Korea 714 times in history, what if they invade again? Koreans in Manchuria formed resistance groups and guerrilla fighters known as Dongnipgun (Independence Army), which traveled across the Korean-Chinese border, using guerrilla warfare tactics against Japanese forces. On 10 December 1941, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, under the presidency of Kim Gu, declared war on Japan and Germany. Its ranks swelled after the Queen's murder by the Japanese troops and Koreans. During colonial times, elementary schools were known as "Citizen Schools" (국민학교; 国民学校; kokumin gakkō) as in Japan, as a means of forming proper "Imperial Citizens" (황국민; 皇国民; kōkokumin) from early childhood. Many community leaders urged the adoption of Japanese names to make it easy for their children to succeed in society and overcome discrimination.[154]. Many rebels, former soldiers, and other volunteers left the Korean Peninsula for Manchuria and Primorsky Krai in Russia. Judge Bert Röling, who represented the Netherlands at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, noted that "many of the commanders and guards in POW camps were Koreans – the Japanese apparently did not trust them as soldiers – and it is said that they were sometimes far more cruel than the Japanese. A study conducted by the United States Library of Congress states that "the Korean culture was quashed, and Koreans were required to speak Japanese and take Japanese names". Though free public education was made available for elementary schools during Japanese rule, Korea as a country did not experience secondary-school enrollment rates comparable to those of Japan prior to the end of World War II. C. ... What items did Korea recieve form China in exchange for ginseng root, metals, and cotton? [12][13], Japanese rule over Korea ended on 15 August 1945 upon the Surrender of Japan in World War II, and the armed forces of the United States and the Soviet Union occupied this region. Japanese military yen, Korean yen, Taiwanese yen: This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan until 1945, the year of the end of World War II in Asia, after the surrender of Japan. By the time of the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Korea was the second-most industrialized nation in Asia after Japan itself. “The whole point was for the government to be able to say that the people had changed their names ‘voluntarily’,”writes historian Hildi Kang. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. All Korean males were drafted to either join the Imperial Japanese Army, as of April 1944, or work in the military industrial sector, as of September 1944. [122] In 1920 these laws were relaxed, and in 1932 Japan eliminated a significant double standard which had been making Korean publication significantly more difficult than Japanese publication. The victims who died in the camp included at least 25 victims from the former Soviet Union and Korea. [8][14] Japanese rule remains controversial in modern-day North Korea and South Korea and its negative repercussions continue to affect these countries, including the industrialization plan to solely benefit Japan, the exploitation of Korean people, the marginalization of Korean history and culture, the environmental exploitation of the Korean Peninsula, and the status of Japanese collaborators known as Chinilpa.[15]. On 3 May 1894, 1,500 Qing forces appeared in Incheon. They attacked numerous countries almost simultaneously: Most notably, the Kōshū Students Anti-Japanese Movement on 3 November 1929 led to the strengthening of Japanese military rule in 1931, after which freedom of the press and freedom of expression were curbed. [18] The coup was put down by Chinese troops, and a Korean mob killed both Japanese officers and Japanese residents in retaliation. The Army came within 12 km of Seoul but could not withstand the Japanese counter-offensive. Under the law, Korean families were “graciously allowed” to choose Japanese surnames. Although the government imported coarse grains from Manchuria to augment the Korean food supply, per capita consumption of food grains in 1944 was 35 percent below that of 1912 to 1916.[107]. [134] Although the government report advised further, more radical reform, the 10-year plan would never fully go into effect. This brought about the abolishment of the Korean caste system. From around the time of the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895, Japanese merchants started settling in towns and cities in Korea seeking economic opportunity. One of the guerrilla groups was led by the future leader of communist North Korea, Kim Il-sung, in Japanese-controlled Manchuria. In 1915, to hold an exhibition, more than 90% of the buildings were torn down. [172] Some historians estimate up to 250,000 total people were subjected to human experiments. During World War II, American soldiers frequently encountered Korean soldiers within the ranks of the Imperial Japanese Army. Thus, Korea was the one that was invaded, not the one invading. The military police were replaced by a civilian force, and freedom of the press was permitted to a limited extent. World War II devastated not just Japan, but the Korean Peninsula, and in 1945, the United States and the USSR captured the peninsula and ended Japanese rule there. [citation needed] Japanese officers in Korea. Another ethnic Korean, Boku Shunkin/Park Chun-Geum (박춘금, 朴春琴), was elected as a member of the Lower House from the Tōkyō Third District in the general election in 1932 and served two terms without changing his Korean name, but has been registered as chinilpa by the current Republic of Korea government. In response, Japanese leaders, citing a violation of the Convention of Tientsin as a pretext, decided upon military intervention to challenge China. December1999. [102], Randall S. Jones wrote that "economic development during the colonial period can be said to have laid the foundation for future growth in several respects. In 1907, the Righteous Army under the command of Yi In-yeong massed 10,000 troops to liberate Seoul and defeat the Japanese. [51] The total number of deaths of Korean forced laborers in Korea and Manchuria is estimated to be between 270,000 and 810,000. Luv,bity baby. Presbyterian missionaries were especially successful. The Japanese troops first quashed the Peasant Army and then disbanded the remained of the government army. "Shintō as a ‘Non-Religion’: The Origins and Development of an Idea". [148][149][150][151][152][153] Starting on 1 March 1919, an anti-Japanese demonstration continued to spread, and as the Japanese national and military police could not contain the crowds, the army and even the navy were also called in. . As greater quantities of Korean rice were exported to Japan, per capita consumption of rice among the Koreans declined; between 1932 and 1936, per capita consumption of rice declined to half the level consumed between 1912 and 1916. [27] In response, the Japanese government took stronger measures. [44] Republic of China further alleged the Japanese authorities in Korea did not take adequate steps to protect the lives and property of the Chinese residents, and blamed the authorities for allowing inflammatory accounts to be published. However, his counselors advised him to bide his time until a proper armada of warships could be built—300 to 600, vessels which would be commissioned from the shipyards of southern China and Korea, and an army of some 40,000 men. Neither Gojong nor Sunjong was present at the 'accession' ceremony. [16] The treaty ended Korea's status as a protectorate of China, forced open three Korean ports to Japanese trade, granted extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens, and was an unequal treaty signed under duress (gunboat diplomacy) of the Ganghwa Island incident of 1875. Japan's leaders have also apologised to China many times. They served as medical and educational missionaries, establishing schools and hospitals in numerous cities. At one point, communist students in Keijō held an "anti-Sunday School conference" and loudly protested religion in front of churches. [115][116][117][118] Many of Lee's arguments, however, have been contested. Korea produced seven generals and numerous field grade officers (Colonels, Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors) during 35 years of colonial governance by Japan, despite institutionalized discrimination. By 1910 the number of Japanese settlers in Korea had reached over 170,000, comprising the largest single overseas-Japanese community in the world at the time. In the years when Korea was under Japanese control, some Koreans adopted Christianity as an expression of nationalism in opposition to the Japan's efforts to promote the Japanese language and the Shinto religion. As the labor shortage increased, by 1942, the Japanese authorities extended the provisions of the National Mobilization Law to include the conscription of Korean workers for factories and mines on the Korean Peninsula, Manchukuo, and the involuntary relocation of workers to Japan itself as needed. While Koreans owned about 61 percent of small-scale firms that had 5 to 49 employees, about 92 percent of large-scale enterprises with more than 200 employees were Japanese-owned. In ancient time, Japan had found that there’re no lands in the area where they could reach by ship on the east. C. 4. [12] In Korea, the danger for destroying cultural properties increased due to modernization and industrialization such as developing the Gyeongbu Line, Gyeongui Line, Gyeongwon Line, and other roads and ports, which led to infrastructure improvement and greater production and trade resulting in a high GNP growth averaging 4.2% for 25 years between 1912 and 1937; and thus laws to protect cultural heritages were enacted in Korea based on the Japanese system to protect national heritages.[12]. Children of elite families were able to advance to higher education, while others were able to attend technical schools, allowing for "the emergence of a small but important class of well-educated white collar and technical workers ... who possessed skills required to run a modern industrial economy." According to testimonies, young women were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule. American forces under General John R. Hodge arrived at the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on 8 September 1945, while the Soviet Army and some Korean Communists had stationed themselves in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, after integration, the regions close to Korea that specialized in the fabric industry, whose products were the primary goods exported from Japan to Korea, experienced more population growth than other regions close to Korea did. [43] The worst of the rioting occurred in Pyongyang on 5 July. Comfort women were often recruited from rural locales with the promise of factory employment; business records, often from Korean subcontractees of Japanese companies, showed them falsely classified as nurses or secretaries. In many cases, women were lured with promises of work in factories or restaurants. [76][77][78][79][80] These women are euphemistically called "comfort women" . However, the Korean nationalists attribute to them a sinister significance. "[103] According to Myung Soo Cha of Yeungnam University, "the South Korean developmental state, as symbolized by Park Chung Hee, a former officer of the Japanese Imperial army serving in wartime Manchuria, was closely modeled upon the colonial system of government. This protest renewed Japanese governmental interest in censorship of communist ideas and language.[147]. Japan paid South Korea 4 billion yen and built a welfare center in the name of humanitarian assistance, not as compensation to the victims.[54]. [171] General Shiro Ishii, the head of Unit 731, revealed during the Tōkyō War Crime Trials that 254 Koreans were killed in Unit 731. [84][85], Asian Women's Fund claimed that during the World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army recruited anywhere from tens of thousands[86] to hundreds of thousands[87] of women from occupied territories to be used as sex slaves, euphemistically referred to as comfort women. Japan occupied Manchuria, Taiwan and Korea from before the outbreak of WWII. Instead, the Korean War broke out between the Soviet and Chinese-backed northern half of Korea and the United States and United Nations-backed south. The Governor-General of Korea cracked down on taking in ethnic Korean foster-daughters by Chinese. Japan decided to make a quick grab for all of Asia to secure more resources. Many witnesses, including Catholic priests, reported that Japanese authorities dealt with insurgency severely. [158][159] This was heavily resisted by the Korean people. Enlisted Soldier recruitment began as early as 1938, when the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria began accepting pro-Japanese Korean volunteers into the army of Manchukuo, and formed the Gando Special Force. Why did Japan invade so many countries and territories in Asia and the South Pacific during the Second World War? Other enticements were false advertising for nursing jobs at outposts or Japanese army bases; once recruited, they were incarcerated in comfort stations both inside their nations and abroad. [25], Two months later, Korea was obliged to become a Japanese protectorate by the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 and the "reforms" were enacted, including the reduction of the Korean Army from 20,000 to 1,000 men by disbanding all garrisons in the provinces, retaining only a single garrison in the precincts of Seoul. For the first decade of colonial rule, therefore, there were no Korean-owned newspapers whatsoever, although books were steadily printed and there were several dozen Korean-owned magazines. The Righteous Army was formed by Yu In-seok and other Confucian scholars during the Peasant Wars. Many Koreans became victims of Japanese brutalities during the colonial period. Japanese History Timeline A list of important milestones of Japanese history. Its first proponent was journalist and independence activist Shin Chaeho (1880–1936). Weber was the chargé d'affaires at the Russian legation in Seoul at that time. In 1911, the proclamation "Matter Concerning the Changing of Korean Names" (朝鮮人ノ姓名改称ニ関スル件) was issued, barring ethnic Koreans from taking Japanese names and retroactively reverting the names of Koreans who had already registered under Japanese names back to the original Korean ones. The protests were brutally suppressed by the Japanese, but not before the desire for independence swept through Korea. When he heard the news, Heungseon Daewongun returned to the royal palace the same day. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! The United States, concerned with Japan's rapid expansion, implemented a complete oil embargo on Japan. From 1939, labor shortages as a result of conscription of Japanese males for the military efforts of World War II led to organized official recruitment of Koreans to work in mainland Japan, initially through civilian agents, and later directly, often involving elements of coercion. Many victims of Japanese imperialism are still alive. Read CNN's Fast Facts about the Korean War. Koreans provided workers to mines and construction sites around Japan. In 1919, the March First Movement proclaimed Korean independence and more than 1,500 demonstrations broke out. The Mongol invasions of Japan took place in 1274 and 1281 CE when Kublai Khan (r. 1260-1294 CE) sent two huge fleets from Korea and China.In both cases, the Japanese, and especially the samurai warriors, vigorously defended their shores but it would be typhoon storms and the so-called kamikaze or ‘divine winds’ which sank and drowned countless ships and men, thus saving Japan from … [130] Korean textbooks from this era included excerpts from traditional Korean stories such as Heungbujeon/Kōfuden (흥부전/興夫伝). "[105], There were some modernization efforts by the late 19th century prior to annexation. As often occurred in Japan itself, tenants had to pay over half their crop as rent, forcing many to send wives and daughters into factories or prostitution so they could pay taxes. In the 17th century Korea suffered from factionalism among its ruling class. [26] A large number of Koreans organized themselves in education and reform movements, but Japanese dominance in Korea had become a reality. Until 1944, enlistment in the Imperial Japanese Army by ethnic Koreans was voluntary, and highly competitive. China is also worried Japan still denies war crimes. During the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1907, the Korean army was disbanded on August 1, 1907. [100] Such events deepened the hostility of many Korean civilians towards the Japanese government. Emperor Gojong secretly sent three representatives to bring the problems of Korea to the world's attention. But in 1939, the government made changing names an official policy. The level of tenancy was similar to that of farmers in Japan itself; however, in Korea, the landowners were mostly Japanese, while the tenants were all Koreans. "[104], A 2017 study found that the gradual removal of trade barriers (almost fully completed by 1923) after Japan's annexation of Korea "increased population growth rates more in the regions close to the former border between Japan and Korea than in the other regions. What was it called? Japan also began to build large-scale industries in Korea in the 1930s as part of the empire-wide program of economic self-sufficiency and war preparation. During World War II, many ethnic Korean girls and women were forced by the Japanese military to become prostitutes under the disguise of being hired for a job such as a seamstress, and were forced to provide sexual service for Japanese soldiers by agencies or their families against their wishes. [111][112][113], Virtually all industries were owned either by Japan-based corporations or by Japanese corporations in Korea. In April 1894, the Korean government asked for Chinese assistance in ending the Donghak peasant revolt. Towards the end of Japanese rule, Korea saw elementary school attendance at 38 percent. [93] In 1914, out of 16 million people, there were 86,000 Protestants and 79,000 Catholics; by 1934 the numbers were 168,000 and 147,000. The combination of immigrants and forced laborers during World War II brought the total to over 2 million by the end of the war, according to estimates by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. [39], The Japanese government conducted excavations of archeological sites and preserved artifacts found there. Regrettably, they were appointed as guards for the prisoners throughout the camps of Burma and Siam. Secondary education included four years of middle school for boys (koto futsu gakkō) and three years for girls (joshi koto futsu gakko) or two to three years of vocational school (jitsugyo gakkō). "[124], Besides, the Korean modern educational institutions were excluded from the colonial system. These laws directly and indirectly permitted the quarantine of patients in sanitariums, where forced abortions and sterilization were common. In this view, he launched the invasion of Korea as the first (and logistically inevitable) campaign in a quest for world conquest. The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Gorō, orchestrated a plot against 43-year-old Queen Min (later given the title of "Empress Myeongseong"), and on 8 October 1895, she was assassinated by Japanese agents. Colonel Dean Rusk proposed to Chischakov, the Soviet military administrator of northern Korea, that Korea should be split at the 38th parallel. [177], Many Koreans were drafted for work at military industrial factories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Approximately 127 Chinese people were killed, 393 wounded, and a considerable number of properties were destroyed by Korean residents. Article 2: His Majesty the Emperor of Japan accepts the concession stated in the previous article and consents to the annexation of Korea to the Empire of Japan. Korea’s people weren’t the only thing that were plundered during Japan’s colonization—its cultural symbols were considered fair game, too. In one instance, Japanese police in the village of Teigan, Suigen District, Keiki Prefecture (now Jeam-ri, Hwaseong, Gyeongggi Province) herded everyone into a church, locked it, and burned it to the ground. [131], In 1921, government efforts were strengthened to promote Korean media and literature throughout Korea and also in Japan. 12 Answers. ... Japan invaded Korea around 1592. A. [176] [35], By 1910 an estimated 7 to 8% of all arable land in Korea had come under Japanese control. [140] In 2010, Prime Minister of Japan Naoto Kan expressed "deep remorse" for the removal of artifacts,[141] and arranged an initial plan to return the Royal Protocols of the Joseon Dynasty and over 1,200 other books, which was carried out in 2011. This applied particularly to Korean private soldiers, conscripted only for guard and sentry duties in many parts of the Japanese empire. [41], The National Palace Museum of Korea, originally built as the "Korean Imperial Museum" in 1908 to preserve the treasures in the Gyeongbokgung, was retained under the Japanese administration but renamed "Museum of the Yi Dynasty" in 1938. Two of the three major Korean daily newspapers, the Tōa Nippō and the Chōsen Nippō, were established in 1920. [126] Korean history and language studies would be taught side by side with Japanese history and language studies until the early 1940s under a new education ordinance that saw wartime efforts increased and the hybrid system slowly weakened. 3. 18–24, See Russian eyewitness account of surrounding circumstances at, Anglo-Japanese Gazette; London October 1904, Dept of State Correspondence #856 dtd 6 January 1905, The Dong-a Ilbo 5 May 1933 "民籍을僞造 醜業을强制 악마 길은 유팍업자의 소행 犯人은警察 에被逮", The Dong-a Ilbo 16 July 1934 "팔린養女 눈물로 呼称 十一歳少女賣春强要". Among these was the intended acceptance by the Korean Financial Department of a Japanese Superintendent, the replacement of Korean Foreign Ministers and consuls by Japanese and the "union of military arms" in which the military of Korea would be modeled after the Japanese military. Collaborators of the Imperial Japanese Army were prosecuted in the postwar period as Chinilpa, or "friendly to Japanese". The Shrine of One Thousand Steps, the Shinto shrine which was built in 1925 from forced Korean donations, still remains but is used as a city park. Danielle Kane, and Jung Mee Park, "The Puzzle of Korean Christianity: Geopolitical Networks and Religious Conversion in Early Twentieth-Century East Asia", Alleyne Ireland "The New Korea" E. P. Dutton. In 1897, this club had destroyed the 1537 Yeongeunmun, a special gate where Chinese envoys had been escorted and received, and contributed to the construction of Independence Gate and they held regular meetings in the Jongno streets, demanding democratic reforms as Korea became a constitutional monarchy, and an end to Japanese and Russian influence in Korean affairs. Integration of Korean students in Japanese language schools and Japanese students in Korean language schools was discouraged but steadily increased over time. Indeed… Protestant Christian missionary efforts in Asia were quite successful in Korea. Korea was divided into two occupation zones that were intended to be temporary. As a S.Korean, not only N.Korea, Japan is also a threat. While prior to this schools in Korea had used mostly Hanja, during this time Korean came to be written in a mixed Hanja–Korean script influenced by the Japanese writing system, where most lexical roots were written in Hanja and grammatical forms in Korean script. Such a radical policy was deemed to be symbolically significant in the war effort, binding the fate of the colony with that of the empire. Here's What Happened. Many participants of the 1 March Movement were subjected to torture and execution. Before 1944, 18,000 Koreans passed the examination for induction into the army. Korean villagers hiding resistance fighters were dealt with harshly, often with summary execution, rape, forced labour, and looting. [146], Missionaries, however, were alarmed at the rise in communist activity during the 1920s. 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Estimated 7 to 8 % of Japan ’ s brutal occupation, it how many times did japan invade korea it by using its over... 2002, South Korea started an investigation of Japanese rule 95 ] many. 10-Year plan would never fully go into effect the archives of the exiled Korean resistance groups, the., such as chemical plants and steel mills, and Mark R. Peattie peasant and! Army '' not an illegal Movement. [ 123 ] physical facilities in... The Bunroku-Keicho War broke off the relationship between Korea and Manchuria is estimated that 2 million took... Agricultural land in Korea how many times did japan invade korea was Lieutenant General and Crown Prince as regent 42 ] in. Patients were also subjected to torture and execution and loyalty to the royal palace the same Leprosy Prevention laws 1907. Powers, how many times did japan invade korea Russia, to counterbalance the growing influence of Japan Korea August. And War preparation little impact, positive or negative, on the assassination found! Militarily by the late 19th century prior to annexation windows of the 16th century, the Empire. Korean males were inducted into the Army came within 12 km of but...
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